SPSS is a powerful statistical software that can perform various analyses on your data. One of the common tasks you may want to do in SPSS is to calculate and interpret z scores. Z scores are standardized values that tell you how many standard deviations a given value is away from the mean of a distribution. Z scores can help you compare values from different scales, identify outliers, and perform hypothesis tests.
In this article, you will learn how to calculate and interpret z scores in SPSS using a simple example. You will also learn how to use z scores for different purposes and what are the advantages and disadvantages of using them.
To calculate z scores in SPSS, you need to have a variable that is measured on a scale level (i.e., interval or ratio). For example, suppose you have a variable called income that shows the annual income (in thousands) for 15 individuals:
To calculate the z scores for this variable, follow these steps: